Packed Bed, Moving Bed, and Tray-Type Scrubbers 

A variety of commercial designs are available for these types of scrubbers. The scrubbers are always vertical cylinders; however, the method of gas-liquid contact differs among the three designs.
Packed bed scrubbers
In a counter-current flow packed bed scrubber the gas stream enters from the bottom and passes upward through one or more beds of solid packing material. Spray nozzles distribute scrubber liquor over the top of the first bed, and the liquor passes downward over the surface of the packing. The packing maximizes the amount of surface area available for absorption of gases and vapors.
Moving bed scrubbers
As in a packed bed scrubber, the gas stream in a moving bed scrubber enters from the bottom and passes up the scrubber vessel in a flow that is counter to the liquor. The spray nozzles at the top of the unit are intended to provide sufficient gas-liquid distribution. The beds are partially filled with hollow spheres that move in a highly turbulent manner. The water droplets and water sheets that form because of ball motion provide targets for particulate matter to strike. This type of scrubber can also be used to remove gases.
Tray-type Scrubbers
In tray-type scrubbers, the gas stream enters near the bottom of the scrubber vessel and passes upward through a series of horizontal trays containing holes. As the high velocity gas stream flows through these holes and strikes a layer of water on the trays, atomized droplets of water are formed. The droplets provide a target for particulate matter to strike.
The scrubbing liquor enters the top and flows across each of the trays in sequence. Down comers are used to move the liquor with impingement trays.
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